Pollution and recycling of the hottest product pac

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Pollution and recycling of product packaging waste

with the sustained and rapid growth of China's economy and the continuous improvement of people's income level, more and more consumer goods processed and produced by industrialized production methods enter people's lives, which not only enrich and facilitate people's lives, but also produce a large amount of packaging waste, artificially producing a large amount of domestic waste. These household garbage occupy arable land, pollute the environment and cause a large waste of resources. It is time to pay attention to it and solve it

1 serious adverse impact of urban garbage on the ecological environment

over the past 20 years of reform and opening up, China has paid more and more attention to the ecological environment, and the urban greening rate increased from 28% in 1993 to 40.5% in 2003 [1], but the urban ecological environment is still not optimistic. There are 668 large and medium-sized cities in China. Compared with developed countries, China's cities have a large population and density. The amount of waste generated by the waste discarded in people's daily life is large and concentrated, a large part of which is packaging waste. According to statistics, China produces nearly 150 million tons of urban waste every year, of which 80% - 90% come from large and medium-sized cities. However, at present, China's urban waste treatment rate is only about 50% [2], and the proportion that really meets the harmless treatment standard was only about 20% in 2004 [3]. At present, the accumulated amount of garbage in China has reached 6.5 billion tons [4], and the average annual growth rate of urban garbage is 8.98%. The annual growth rate of a few cities such as Beijing has reached 15% ~ 20%, and more than 200 cities are surrounded by garbage [2]. The main components of municipal waste include organic matters, such as kitchen waste, sawdust, etc; There are inorganic substances, such as coal ash, bricks and tiles, etc; There are waste products, such as paper, plastic and metal. It is estimated that about 1/3 of the waste produced in the world every year belongs to packaging waste [5 on the basis of fully absorbing the opinions of many entrepreneurs, experts and professional committees], China is no exception. A large number of packaging waste has increased the environmental burden, and urban waste, including packaging waste, will have the following adverse effects on the ecological environment

1.1 aggravate the urban ecological environment pollution

at present, most cities adopt simple methods such as open-air stacking and landfill in natural gullies. This method of garbage treatment is bound to pollute the urban ecological environment: first, pollute water bodies. The stacked garbage or the landfill site has not been isolated from the water body, and the toxic substances in it will penetrate into the water body through rainwater and snow water, polluting the water source and groundwater resources. The sampling survey conducted by the National Environmental Protection Bureau in 2002 showed that 86% of the groundwater in the location of urban domestic waste landfills nationwide exceeded the national water pollution standard [3]. Second, soil pollution. Heavy metal elements in garbage, such as as as, Pb, CD, Hg, Cu, etc., enter the soil and will be absorbed by crops, eventually endangering human health. Third, air pollution. Garbage piled around cities will produce a lot of toxic gases. Some cities burn garbage in the open air, producing dioxin and other toxic gases, making the already polluted urban air more polluted

1.2 a large amount of cultivated land is occupied, making it barren.

urban garbage is stacked in the urban-rural fringe around the city. China's current urban garbage accumulation reaches 6.5 billion tons, covering an area of more than 50000 hectares [4], and is expanding every year. Both waste dumps and landfills occupy arable land, making China, which is already too small, even more stretched. In addition, trees cannot be planted where garbage is stacked, which further worsens the urban ecological environment

1.3 it stinks and breeds mosquitoes and flies. There are still leftover food in a large number of discarded food packaging bags and boxes. After these leftover food molds, it stinks. It is a hiding place for rats and a breeding place for mosquitoes and flies. As a result, the domestic garbage produced by human beings has enriched mice and mosquitoes and flies. In turn, they are enemies of human beings, attack human beings, infect diseases, make human beings suffer deeply, and destroy the peaceful living environment of human beings

1.4 give some outlaws an opportunity

due to the improvement of people's living standards, more and more emphasis is placed on increasing the nutrition of food, which also makes the food residues in waste food packaging equally nutritious, resulting in the eutrophication of urban garbage. At the same time, it also gives some lawless people an opportunity. They use the garbage dump as a place to raise pigs, chickens and other livestock and poultry, use garbage as feed, and then sell these garbage pigs and chickens to urban slaughtering workshops, and then flow to the market

1.5 product waste produces secondary pollution

there are almost as many kinds of garbage in urban garbage dumps as there are abundant commodities on the market. As they were not treated in time, some rag collectors and scavengers searched for "treasures" in the garbage and picked up some so-called usable things, such as old clothes, old syringes, disposable chopsticks, plastic bags, food packaging boxes, etc. without any disinfection and recycling, they flowed to the market through illegal means, resulting in Erwin, which created the first laboratory of the same type in Shanghai, China. Secondary pollution is harmful to the health of consumers

2 the recycling of product packaging waste can produce huge economic and social benefits

the main components of urban waste in China are coal ash, paper, plastic and metal, of which a considerable part of paper, plastic and metal come from the packaging of products, which can be completely recycled, save a lot of resources and energy, and produce huge economic and social benefits. For example, in urban garbage, waste paper (including packaging paper) accounts for 2% - 12%. Using 1 ton of waste paper can re paper 800 kg, save 4 cubic meters of wood, save 400 degrees of electricity, save 400 kilograms of coal, and save 30 tons of water; The proportion of glass products is about 1.87%. Using 1 ton of broken glass to be processed can save 1 ton of coal and 400 degrees of electricity [6]. China produces 5million tons of plastic waste every year, only about 30% of which is spontaneously recycled by self-employed households, and resources worth 5billion yuan are wasted [7]. These data show that the recycling of product packaging waste can produce huge economic benefits, and its social benefits are mainly reflected in reducing the pollution to the ecological environment, which is conducive to maintaining the urban ecological balance, saving a lot of resources for the society, and delaying the rate of natural resource depletion in China

some developed countries have successfully implemented the recycling of garbage, especially the recycling of product packaging waste, which has created huge economic benefits. For example, half of the garbage in Finland has been reused, and the recycling rate of waste paper reached 70% in 2001; The copper recovered from waste products in Japan accounts for 80% of the national copper demand [8], the recycling rate of waste packaging is 78%, and more than 50% of papermaking raw materials come from the recycling market; The recycling rate of waste packaging materials in France is 57%, and 90% of corrugated paper is produced from recycled waste paper; The recovery rate of American aluminum cans is 95% [5]. There are three waste treatment companies in the United States, accounting for more than 15% of the national waste treatment capacity, with an annual benefit of more than $2billion [8]. All these show that developed countries have achieved good results in the recycling of product packaging waste, and have produced huge economic and social benefits, which is worthy of our imitation

3 several key problems to be solved in the recycling of product packaging waste recycling of product packaging waste is a good thing for the country and the people and for the next generation, but the enthusiasm of the people can not be mobilized, and there are few participants. Even if someone participates, it can not be sustained. The reason is that several key problems have not been solved

3.1 the absence of local government functions in China's reform and opening up has gradually transitioned from a planned economic system to a market economic system. At the end of the last century and the beginning of this century, China has increased the intensity of enterprise reform and established a modern enterprise system. In order to realize the separation of government and enterprises, the government will no longer directly intervene in the business activities of enterprises, but carry out macro-control through various policies, laws and regulations, so that enterprises have business autonomy, independent management, responsible for their own profits and losses, self-discipline and self-development. Many enterprises have carried out joint-stock reform, and enterprises are more flexible. However, some enterprises ignore government policies and laws and wantonly produce disposable plastic foam lunch boxes, one of the sources of white pollution. In addition, the output of plastic bags in China is getting higher and higher, more and more enterprises are producing plastic bags, and the price of plastic bags is getting cheaper and cheaper, causing people to discard them at will. Plastic bags are seriously polluted, and all discarded after use have become pollutants. Although the state has invested heavily in the control of environmental pollution, it has also issued laws and regulations on environmental protection, and some local governments do not investigate, severely punish, or even let go of the enterprises that produce pollution sources. This is the result of the absence of local government functions. What is the reason why the things that should be managed are not in place? Because these enterprises that produce plastic lunch boxes and plastic bags can pay taxes, which is a contribution to local finance; It can solve the employment problem of local residents and reduce the pressure of the government to solve the employment problem of residents; It can increase local GDP and improve local government performance. From the analysis of these reasons, it is not difficult to find that this is the local protectionism of the local government

to solve the problem of the absence of local government functions, the following countermeasures must be taken: (1) improve the awareness of government officials about the harm of local protectionism. Organize the training and study of government officials, establish the idea of national unity, raise awareness and consciousness, and consciously abandon local protectionism. (2) Implement accountability for government officials. If you fail to do your job well within the scope of responsibility, you should bear the responsibility of dereliction of duty, so as to improve the working spirit of government officials. (3) Implement the inter provincial exchange system for government officials. Government officials have worked in a place for a long time, which is very easy to breed local protectionism. If the exchange of government officials at the provincial level is carried out every four years, it can expand their work horizons, break down various relationships, and promote government officials to work hard. (4) The NPC should strengthen and improve the legislative work of administrative omission. The government officials who fail to act shall be investigated according to law. (5) Strengthen the supervision of the central government over local governments. The central government sends inspection teams to inspect the work of local government officials from time to time every year, urging local governments to implement the policies and requirements of the central government and govern in accordance with the law

3.2 the legal system is not perfect and laws are not complied with.

urban garbage pollution is serious, in which a large number of packaging waste has increased environmental pressure and done great harm, which must be dealt with according to law. The law of the people's Republic of China on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste, adopted by the National People's Congress and implemented on April 1st, 1996, is China's first regulation on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste. The amendment to the law was reviewed and approved by the National People's Congress on December 29th, 2004 and came into force on April 1st, 2005. From the first promulgation and implementation to the first revision of the law, there have been many new problems during the period of nine years. From May to June 2003, the investigation team established by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress confirmed the following problems: first, the production of solid waste continued to grow. Urban domestic waste increased by 4% and industrial solid waste increased by 7% every year. Second, the solid waste disposal capacity is insufficient. Third, the solid waste disposal standard is low and the management is not strict, and the urban domestic waste

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